Chia System Overview
有不同类型的点对点 (P2P) 网络，例如 BitTorrent、比特币和奇亚。奇亚网络是一个执行多项主要功能的区块链，包括处理金融交易、运行 Chialisp 编写的程序以及从 XCH（奇亚的基础货币）铸造代币。该网络由数十万个节点组成，每个节点都存储区块链历史的副本，同时还通过网络传播新交易。
This section will provide a basic overview of Chia's network. We'll go into much more detail in later sections.
There are different types of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, such as BitTorrent, Bitcoin, and Chia. The Chia network is a blockchain that performs several major functions, including processing financial transactions, running programs written in Chialisp, and minting tokens from XCH (Chia's base currency). The network is composed of hundreds of thousands of nodes, each of which stores a copy of the blockchain's history, while also propagating new transactions across the network.
奇亚使用硬币集 (UTXO) 模型来跟踪网络状态。在这个模型中，硬币是一等物。每个硬币都被称为谜语的 Chialisp 程序锁定，然后对其进行哈希以创建谜语哈希。硬币的 ID 是其父硬币的 ID、其谜语哈希和金额。
Chia uses the coin set (UTXO) model to keep track of the network's state. In this model, a coin is a first-class object. Each coin is locked with a Chialisp program called a puzzle, which is then hashed to create a puzzlehash. The coin's ID is a hash of its parent coin's ID, its puzzlehash, and its amount.
Each transaction in Chia must spend at least one coin. In order to spend a coin, one must provide the original puzzle, as well as a valid solution, and an optional aggregated signature. Multiple coins can communicate with each other in the same transaction by using announcements.
For more info about the coin set model and Chia's on-chain programming environment, see chialisp.com.
完整节点协议可以在第 10 节中找到。
第 3.2 节 中列出了图块构建协议。 ）。
赢得彩票的奖品称为块奖励。最初，这个奖励是 2 XCH。但是，在奇亚存在的前 12 年中，奖励金额大约每三年减少一半。从那时起，奖励将始终是 XCH 的 1/8。
虽然“XCH”是一种方便的奇亚币计价方式，但区块链只知道mojos。这些是奇亚币的最小面额。每个魔力值一个 XCH 的万亿分之一（1/1,000,000,000,000）。
Chia nodes connect to a random subset of other Chia nodes, called peers. The nodes periodically send and receive information from peers, which is then stored locally in a peer database. Each node broadcasts all new transactions and blocks that they see to their peers, which in turn relay this information to their peers, resulting in the information quickly being propagated throughout the network. When first starting up, nodes have to synchronize to the blockchain, by downloading the entire history of blocks and transactions.
The Full Node Protocol can be found in Section 10.
Additionally, nodes have the option of farming to help secure the network. They do this by storing large files called plots, which mostly consist of random data called proofs of space. These proofs of space function as tickets in an ongoing lottery. The more plots a farmer stores, the higher the probability of winning.
The plot construction protocol is laid out in Section 3.2.
The prize for winning the lottery is called the block reward. Initially, this reward is 2 XCH. However, the reward amount is cut in half approximately every three years for the first 12 years of Chia's existence. From that point forward, the reward will always be 1/8 of an XCH.
More info on the block reward structure can be found in Section 5.3.
While "XCH" is a convenient way to denominate Chia coins, the blockchain only knows about mojos. These are the smallest denomination of Chia's coins. Each mojo is worth one trillionth (1/1,000,000,000,000) of an XCH.
Timelord nodes broadcast proofs of time (explained in Section 3.3) around every nine seconds. This is equivalent to selecting and broadcasting the winning numbers in an ongoing lottery. When a farmer has a valid proof of space, they win the current lottery drawing. This allows them to process the highest-paying transactions from the mempool into a new block. They then broadcast this block to the rest of the network. Around one out of every three blocks contains transactions. The rest of the blocks are empty, but do pay a reward. (See Section 3.10 for more details.)
The timelord algorithm is explained in Section 3.13.
第 3.12 节 有更多关于钱包的信息。
有关奇亚池化协议的更多信息，请参阅第 11 节。
Pools allow farmers to smooth out their rewards. They pay out small rewards frequently, often daily. They tend to charge a small fee for their services. The Chia company doesn't run its own pools. Many popular Chia pools also offer services for farming or mining other cryptocurrencies.
For more info on Chia's pooling protocol, see Section 11.
The rest of the documentation will go in-depth for each of the above topics.